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Old 2nd April 2008, 02:21
GrzegorzM GrzegorzM is offline
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Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: Warsaw, Poland
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Re: Polish War Crimes

"Bromberger Blutsonntag" is a term invented by Goebbels propaganda, describing invented death of over 5000 innocent Volksdeutche in Bydgoszcz/Bromberg, and 58 000-60 000 in whole Poland. It is just lie, and repeating it is repeating the Nazi lies.
When someone is asking about "Bromberger Blutsonntag", the only true and reasonable answer is that it was term invented by Nazi propaganda, and used to cheat international opinion about the real events, like the public opinions of occupied Europe was cheated, that the Jews are deported "to work in the East", while in fact they went directly to gas chambers.
According to the very German sources, exactly the "Posener Zentralstelle fuer die Graeber ermordeter Volksdeutscher" (Center of Murdered Ethnic-Germans Burial) has noted about 5500 ethnic-German Poles fallen and missing in September 1939 in WHOLE POLAND, for ALL REASONS (including 1047 soldiers of Polish Army of German origin who died during fights, and 880 German "partisans" (saboteurs?).

Of course there were acts of spontaneous hostility against ethnic Germans in September 1939, but these events weren't organised or approved by Polish army or authorities. Very often were caused by real or imagined sabotage or diversion acts of the Germans, and were part of the general "spymania" pretty popular in various countries during days of defeat (see the WWI activities of Austro-Hungarian Empire and many other examples). That 1939 "spymania" caused several spontaneous acts of violence against suspected saboteurs or "air raid spotters", but victims of that actions were harmed not on the ethnic or national basis, most important were situations (popular cause of the suspicions was using the small mirror in the open terrain, it was often considered as "signaling the artillery or airplanes").

From history of my family I have two related stories:

Father of my grandma's best friend, ethnic German, but loyal Polish citizen named Ulbrich, was head of the local school in Warsaw suburbs. Some years before the war he has fired one of the school employees (not a teacher, guy who's job was repairing things) because that employee was stealing some resources from the school. Shortly after the outbreak of the war, that former employee came to Mr. Ulbrich and "arrested" him as German spy, and later most probably murdered.

Great-grandfather of my friend, ethnic German from Bydgoszcz-Bromberg, WWI German Imperial Army veteran Jullian Olesch was sentenced to death and executed by German occupational forces in 1941 or 1942 for denying the official Nazi version of that events. I have seen original "act of death", he was executed with German precision some day "at 08.01 a.m.".

In the end, some informations from German sources, related to Bydgoszcz/Bromberg events:

Edwin Erich Dwinger, author of the Nazi book about "Bromberger Blutsonntag" in his book "Zwoelf Gespraeche" published in 1966, has condemned his own propaganda book about "Bromberger Blutsonntag". He wrote: "Counterintelligence of SS before the war outbreak has smuggled their people to Poland, in order to carry sabotage in civilian clothes. For causing explosions, for shooting to marching soldiers, for burning military depots, were then accused Volksdeutche... Polish anger has turned against them, this is one of the secrets of the "Bromberger Blutsonntag". Later Dwinger has repeated that to his son, who demanded the whole truth about his father's participation in Nazi propaganda (Susanne Feigl, Elisabeth Pable - Vдter Unser, Reflexionen von Tцchtern und Sцhnen- Wien 1988).
"this murder was reaction on shooting at marching Polish soldiers, and sabotage acts... He (his father) was convinced, that Goebbels calling him knew very well, that these events were inscenised by Main Security Reich Office" from: N. Dwinger, Leben zwischen Lenzen und Pershings (in) S. Feigl, E. Pable Vдter unser. Reflexionen von Tуchtern und Sцhnen, Wien, page 210

There are also German Sonderbericht Bromberg (Special Court Bydgoszcz/Bromberg) documents, preserved in Bydgoszcz State Archive, from trials of Polish officers accused and judged for numerous executions of Germans in early September 1939. Very interesting materials, showing that German court in 1939-42 period accepted that there was real German diversion and 5th column active in Bydgoszcz/Bromberg and accepted executions of German saboteurs as lawful actions of Polish military forces.
Wieslaw Jakubowski, commander of 6th company 59 Infantry Regt, judged for ordering shooting at German civilians, throwing grenades to German houses and execution of ethnic German Otto Rodewald. Jakubowski was accused by one of the Volksedeutche serving in his unit, Erwin Heilmann, who stated that the Polish unit was shot from gardens and houses and Jakubowski ordered to return fire. Two Polish soldiers have died and several were wounded. Heilmann also stated, that he had seen that Polish soldier has murdered German woman, and that the Polish soldiers were throwing grenades to the German houses, but asked by court how he determined that the women and the houses were German, he withdrew his testimony, and accused Jakubowski for executing German civilian, Otto Rodewald. Court found Jakubowski unguilty, stating that execution of Rodewald was justified.
Document number: Sg. 6 Sd. Js. 781/41.
Lt. Tadeusz Gorecki, 61 Inf. Rgt. judged for execution of two German civilians. Court found Gorecki unguilty, stating that execution was justified.
Document number: Sg.6 Sd.KLS.93/41.
Major Jan Gawronski, commander of Bydgoszcz Batalion of National Defence judged for execution of 6 ethnic Germans 5th September. Court found Gawronski unguilty, stating that execution was justified.
Document number: Sg. 6 Sd.KLS.31/41.
Res. Lt. Jozef Tomaszewski, 59 Inf. Rgt., judged for execution of several ethnic Germans, Court found Tomaszewski unguilty, stating that execution was justified.
Document number: Sg.5 Sd.KLS.51/54.
Lt Boleslaw Soltys from 59 Inf. Rgt. judged for execution of four German civilians. Court found Tomaszewski unguilty, stating that execution was justified.
Document number: Gerichtsgefangnis Bromberg, t XV, K. 362. t. XXVI, K. 758.
Res. Lt Stanislaw Kuczkowski from 62 Inf. Rgt., in civil life judge of Polish court, accused and judged for execution of several German civilians, captured with arms. Kuczkowski was sentenced to death, but after announcing the sentence to the court a German came, who has been a witness of the event, and who had been arrested by Kuczkowski with that group of armed Germans, and then released, as no arms were found with him. After that testimony Kuczkowski was found unguilty. Sg. 4 Sd. KLS. 10/41