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Pre-WW2 Military and Naval Aviation Please use this forum to discuss Military and Naval Aviation before the Second World War.

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Old 26th December 2012, 21:06
John Beaman John Beaman is offline
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early Southern Cal. aviation

This is long, but worth a read. This is from an article in the retiree's newsletter by Denham S. Scott

NTERESTING EARLY AMERICAN AVIATION HISTORY

How many of you know that in 1910, mighty Martin Marietta got its start in an abandoned California church? That's where Glenn L. Martin with his amazing mother Minta Martin and their mechanic Roy Beal constructed a fragile biplane that Glenn taught himself to fly.

It has often been told how Douglas Aircraft started operations in 1920 in a barbershop's backroom on L.A. 's Pico Boulevard . Interestingly, the barber-shop is still operating.

The Lockheed Company built the first of their famous Vegas' in 1927 inside a building currently used by Victory Cleaners at 1040 Sycamore in Hollywood .

In 1922, Claude Ryan, a 24 year old military reserve pilot, was getting his hair cut in San Diego, when the barber mentioned that the 'town's aviator' was in jail for smuggling Chinese illegal’s up from Mexico. Claude found out that if he replaced the pilot 'sitting in the pokey,' that he would be able to lease the town's airfield for $50 a month - BUT he also needed to agree to fly North and East - BUT not South!

Northrop's original location was an obscure So California hotel. It was
available because the police had raided the hotel and found that its
steady residents were money-minded gals entertaining transitory male hotel
guests.

Glenn Martin built his first airplane in a vacant church, before he moved
to a vacant apricot cannery in Santa Ana . He was a showman and he traveled the county fair
and air meet circuit as an exhibitionist aviator From his exhibition proceeds, Glenn was able to pay his factory workers and
purchase the necessary wood, linen and wire.
His mother, Minta and two men ran the factory while Glenn risked his neck and gadded about the country. One of his workers was 22-year old Donald Douglas [who WAS the entire engineering department]. A Santa Monica youngster named Larry Bell [later founded Bell Aircraft which today is Bell Helicopter Textron] ran the shop.

Another part of Glenn Martin's business was a flying school with several
planes based at Griffith Park , and a seaplane operation on the edge of
Watts where his instructors taught a rich young man named Bill Boeing to fly.




Later, Boeing bought one of Glenn Martin's seaplanes and had it shipped back to his home in Seattle . At this same time, Bill Boeing hired away Glenn's personal mechanic. Later, after Boeing's seaplane crashed in Puget Sound , he placed an order to Martin for replacement parts.

Still chafing from having his best mechanic 'swiped,' [a trick he later
often used himself] Martin decided to take his sweet time and allowed Bill
Boeing to 'stew' for a while. Bill Boeing wasn't known to be a patient man, so he began fabricating
his own aircraft parts, an activity that morphed into constructing entire airplanes and eventually the Boeing Company we know today.

A former small shipyard nicknamed 'Red Barn' became Boeing Aircraft's
first home. Soon, a couple of airplanes were being built inside, each of them
having a remarkable resemblance to Glenn Martin's airplanes .. that,
interestingly, had its own remarkable resemblance to Glenn Curtiss'
airplanes.

A few years later, when the Great depression intervened and Boeing
couldn't sell enough airplanes to pay his bills, he diversified into custom built
speed boats and furniture for his wealthy friends.

After WWI, a bunch of sharpies from Wall Street gained control of the
Wright Brothers Co in Dayton and the Martin Company in L.A. and 'stuck
them' together as the Wright-Martin Company.

Wright-Martin began building an obsolete biplane design with a foreign
Hispano-Suiza engine. Angered because he had been out maneuvered with a
bad idea, Martin walked out .. taking Larry Bell and other key employees with him.

>From the deep wallet of a wealthy baseball mogul, Martin was able to
establish a new factory. Then his good luck continued, when the future
aviation legend Donald Douglas, was persuaded by Glenn to join his team.
The Martin MB-1 quickly emerged from the team's efforts and became the Martin Bomber.

Although too late to enter WWI, the Martin Bomber showed its superiority
when Billy Mitchell used it to sink several captured German battleships and cruisers
to prove it's worth. He was later court martialed for his effort.





In Cleveland , a young fellow called 'Dutch' Kindelberger joined Martin as
an engineer. Later, as the leader of North American Aviation, Dutch became justifiably well-known.

Flashing back to 1920, Donald Douglas had saved $60,000, returned to L.A. and
rented a barbershop's rear room and loft space in a carpenter's shop
nearby.. There he constructed a classic passenger airplane called the
Douglas Cloudster.

A couple of years later, Claude Ryan bought the Cloudster and used it to
make daily flights between San Diego and Los Angeles . This gave Ryan the
distinction of being the first owner/operator of Douglas transports.
Claude Ryan later custom built Charles Lindbergh's 'ride' to fame in the
flying fuel tank christened: The Spirit of St. Louis .

In 1922, Donald Douglas won a contract from the Navy to build several
torpedo carrying aircraft. While driving through Santa Monica 's
wilderness, Douglas noticed an abandoned, barn-like movie studio. He stopped
his roadster and prowled around. That abandoned studio became Douglas Aircraft's first real factory.

With the $120,000 contract in his hand, Donald Douglas could afford to
hire one or two more engineers. My brother, Gordon Scott, had been schooled
in the little known science of aviation at England 's Fairey Aviation, so he hired Gordon.

My first association with the early aviation pioneers occurred when I paid
my brother a visit at his new work place. Gordon was outside on a ladder
washing windows. He was the youngest engineer. Windows were dirty. And
Douglas Aircraft Company had no money to pay janitors.

Gordon introduced me to a towhead guy called Jack Northrop, and another
chap named Jerry Vultee. Jack Northrop had moved over from Lockheed Aircraft.
And all of them worked together on the Douglas Aircraft's world cruiser designs.



While working in his home after work and on weekends, Jack
designed a wonderfully advanced streamlined airplane. When Allan Loughead [Lockheed] found a wealthy investor willing to finance Northrop's new airplane, he linked up with Allan and together, they leased a Hollywood workshop where they constructed the Lockheed Vega. It turned out to be sensational with its clean lines and high performance. Soon Amelia Earhart and others flew the Vega and brokemany of aviation's world records.

I had the distinct pleasure of spending time with Ed Heinemann who later
designed the AD, A3D and A4D. He told me how my Dad would fly out to
Palmdale with an experimental aircraft they were both working on. They
would take it for a few hops and come up with some fixes. After having
airframe changes fabricated in a nearby machine shop, they would hop it
again to see if they had gotten the desired results. If it worked out, Mr.
Heinemann would incorporate the changes on the aircraft's assembly
line. No money swapped hands!

In May 1927, Lindbergh flew to Paris and triggered a bedlam where everyone was trying to fly everywhere. Before the first Lockheed Vega was built, William Randolph Hearst had already paid for it and had it entered in an air race from the California Coast to Honolulu .



In June 1927, my brother, Gordon, left Douglas Aircraft to become Jack Northrop's assistant at Lockheed. While there, he managed to get himself hired as the navigator on Hearst's Vega.


The race was a disaster and ten lives were lost. The Vega and my brother
vanished. A black cloud hung heavily over the little shop. However, Hubert
Wilkins, later to become Sir Hubert Wilkins, took Vega #2 and made a
successful polar flight from Alaska to Norway . A string of successful
flights after that placed Lockheed in aviation's forefront..

I went to work for Lockheed as it 26th employee, shortly after the disaster,
and I worked on the Vega. It was made almost entirely of wood and I
quickly become a half-assed carpenter.

At this time, General Motors had acquired North American consisting of
Fokker Aircraft, Pitcairn Aviation [later Eastern Airlines] and Sperry
Gyroscope and hired Dutch Kindelberger away from Douglas to run it.
Dutch moved the entire operation to L.A. where Dutch and his engineers came up with the P-51 Mustang.

Interestingly, just a handful of young men played roles affecting the
lives of all Americans ..... as it initiated the So California metamorphosis,
from a semi-desert with orange groves and celluloid, into a dynamic complex, supporting millions.

Although this technological explosion had startling humble beginnings,
taking root as acorns in - a barber shop's back room - a vacant church -
and an abandoned cannery - but came to fruition as mighty oaks.





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Old 2nd January 2013, 00:22
kglass kglass is offline
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Re: early Southern Cal. aviation

Thanks for posting this, John. An interesting read.

Regards,
Ken Glass
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